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The cost of low-back injury to industry is staggering.

Low-back pain is the most frequent cause of restricted activity and disability in persons under age 45 and the third most *equent cause in the 45-64 age groups Accurate diagnosis and prompt treatment is of paramount importance in limiting disability and is the focus of the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation specialist.

Approximately 2% of all workers injure their backs annually.

The treatment goal in low-back injury is returning the disabled worker to work.

Among individuals disabled due to low-back pain, approximately 50% have no objective findings.

Based on epidemiological data, lifting is one physical factor common to over 33% of lowback injuries.

The determinants of lifting technique are multifactorial. Manual material handling requires coordination, proprioception, training, experience, intelligence, flexibility of the extremities and spine, strength of the extremities and trunk, and endurance.

Psychosocial factors play a tremendous role in spine disability and recovery.

Programs directed at altering management's perspective of the injured worker have been successful in reducing low-back injury costs.

Strength is one of several components of the functional task of lifting. Increased abdominal and trunk muscle strength have been shown to improve outcome following lowback injury.