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Systemic hypertension affects over 60 million Americans, being the most prevalent cardiovascular disorder in the United States. The prevalence of hypertension increases with age. The morbidity and mortality of hypertension are predominately related to the cardiovascular, neurological, and renal complications, many of which have disabling consequences. There is also considerable disability caused by the treatment itself. It is the goal of this review to discuss these disabling complications of this disease.

This relationship between hypertension and coronary artery disease has important prognostic implications.

Heart failure is commonly associated with hypertension.

Clinical heart failure also can be present in hypertensive patients with LVH and intact systolic function.

The presence of LVH is also a risk factor for the development of cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death.

The presence of LVH associated with hypertension carries on an overall poor prognosis.

Hypertension and Disability due to Stroke

Stroke is the major clinical challenge as far as the neurological consequences of hypertension.

The kidney helps maintain normal blood pressure by responding to changes in systemic arterial pressure with changes in the fluid and electrolyte balance.

In hypertensives, systemic and renal vascular arterial resistance is elevated and renal blood flow is decreased.

The pathogenesis of the development of renal insufficiency in essential hypertension is not entirely arterial hypertension.